Language and Literature
The Adivasi languages belong to three main language groups, namely Dravidian Austric/Munda and Indo-Aryan. Under the Dravidian group are: Gondi, Konda, Kui, Kuvi-Kondh, Kisan, Koya, Kolami, Naiki, Draon, Ollar (GadabaJ, Pcngo and Parji. The Austric-Munda group includes Bhurmij, Birhor, Bonda, Didayi, Gadaba, Juang, Ho, Kharia, Korku, Koda, Parenga and Mundari. To the Indo-Aryan group belong Bathudi, Bhatri, Bhuyan, Jharia, Desia, Kurmali, Halbi, Sadri and Saonti. Recent linguistic research has established that these are languages, not dialects. They ha been used orally but writing systems have been devised for Santali, Saora, Ho and Kui in which school textbooks have been prepared to facilitate learning through the mother tongue.
Tribal literature is by and large folk literature of the oral tradition comprising songs, tales, myths, proverbs, riddles and invocations. The tribal community a song for almost every occasion conveying their changing group emotions and sentiments and describing community life situations and the seasonal changes. Though oral free from conscious efforts, the songs may at times embody some noble sentiment too, for example:
(Let all be happy: let all live in peace)
This Kondh song embodies the sentiment of the Upanishadic hymn, Sarve bhavantu sukhinah: Let all be happy. Santali has some written literature. This has been brougti to the, ken of the modern reader in several volumes of \vritten presentations by Dr Sitakanta Mal~apalra who has also translated the Santal Ba~hens or invocation songs into English for the interested readers. Pandit Raghunath Murmu, who invented the 01 Chiki script for Santali, through two of his major plays Kherwal Bir ant Bidu Chandan has well interpreted the Santal tradition and culture.