Total Sanitation Campaign-State Scenario
Consumption of safe drinking water, proper sanitation and adoption of correct hygiene practices has a significant impact on the health of people. As per the Lancet Papers on Child Survival, diarrheal diseases are amongst the top three global killers of children in the world today. Since diarrheal diseases are of feacal origin all precautions should be taken to prevent feacal matter from entering the domestic oral route. The prevailing high Infant Mortality Rate of 87/1000 for Orissa can also be attributed to poor sanitation. Improper disposal of human excreta, improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene are major contributions to diseases in developing countries.
It was in this context that the Government of India launched the Centrally Sponsored Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) in 1986 primarily with an objective of improving the quality of life of the rural people. However, the CRSP programme had its own snags. The interventions were primarily supply driven and the latrines were provided to rural beneficiaries at high rates of subsidy. The lack of a proper fund channelisation system and a standard implementation strategy led to unprecedented delays in fund utilization and adhoc interventions, which failed to achieve the primary objective of the programme. Furthermore, the Zilla Parshad which was supposed to implement the programme was neither formally prepared nor did it have the infrastructure to conduct the programme.
With an intention to both reverse and strengthen the shortcomings of the CRSP programme, the Government of India launched the TSC programme in 1999. The TSC marked a paradigm shift in the way in which government programmes were designed and implemented. It aimed to bring about qualitative change in the lives of people through
- A demand driven participatory approach wherein the community would be involved in the process of planning, implementing, operating and maintaining its own system.
- It would therefore be a community-led, people-centred approach as opposed to a government led and supply driven initiative
- The TSC also has a strong IEC, Human Resource and Capacity development activities to increase the awareness of people on sanitation and generate a demand for facilities.
- A range of toilet design and cost options are being promoted to cater to the needs and demands of different category of people
The objectives of the TSC are as follows:
- Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life of people in the rural areas
- Accelerate sanitation coverage in the rural areas
- Generate a felt and informed demand for sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education
- Cover school in the rural areas with sanitation facilities and promote sanitary habits among students
- Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies in sanitation
- Bring about a reduction in the water and sanitation related diseases.
Sanitation Scenario in Orissa
India has the second largest population in the world. More than 70% of India’s population lives in the rural areas with approximately 22% of them having access to sanitation facilities. There is however intense disparity between the states with regard to access and use of sanitation facilities. Only 6% of the rural households in Madhya Pradesh use toilets as compared to over 80% of rural populace in Kerala and Manipur using toilet facilities. It has also been seen that using a toilet has less to do with affordability and more to do with the attitude. 8% of the rural population in Haryana uses a toilet but 40% of the households have a TV at home. 80% of the rural populace in Kerala has access to toilets but only 18% have a TV and in West Bengal 22% of the rural people use a toilet but 8% have TV. This clearly states that having and using a toilet depends upon the attitude of the community and the priority given to allocating household expenditure.
Percentage of household with toilet facility by states (Rural), 2001
Orissa is a state that presents great challenges and opportunities. With a population of 36.7 million (88 per cent living in rural areas), the State ranks 11th in size in India and covers an area of approximately 155,700 square kilometers comprising of 30 districts; 314 blocks; 6234 Gram Panchayats; and, 134,850 habitations.
The state has the lowest social and human development indicators in the country. The IMR in Orissa stands at 87/1000 live births much higher than the national average of 63/1000 births. Over 47 percent of the population lives below the poverty line. In Orissa, Rural Sanitation Programme is being implemented through Rural Development Department. The communities led and demand driven Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) in Orissa has been sanctioned in the following phases
2000-2001: Balasore, Ganjam, Sundergarh,
2001-2002: Bhadrak, Khurdha,
2002-2003: Cuttack, Nayagarh, Jagatsinghpur, Kendrapada, Puri, Jajpur, Bolangir, Kandhmal, Koraput, Rayagada.
2004-2005: Angul, Kalahandi, Malkangiri, Nawarangpur, Sonepur, Boudh, Dhenkanal, Sambalpur, Gajpati, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, Nuapada, Bargarh, Deogarh, Jharsuguda
As per the Census 2001, the percentage of rural households not having access to safe sanitation was 92.3%. That is of the total 67, 82,879 (Census 2001) rural households, sanitation facility was not available in 62, 59,607 households. Present ranking of Orissa on TSC at country level is as below:
||Individual Household Latrine
|Ranking in the Country
Unsanitary practices, primarily open defecation, bad hygiene practices and the use of contaminated water remain the major causes of child death, disease and malnutrition in India, especially affecting the poor. Only 25 % of the rural households have toilets and nearly 90% with water facilities. While there is only anecdotal evidence to prove this claim, it has been seen that lack of toilets in schools can be a deterrent factor in girls attending schools. The problem of sanitation is not only related to improving the use of toilets but closely linked to improved personal, home and community hygiene practices.
While access to drinking water has improved over the years with near universal coverage, proper use and maintenance of water systems, acceptable standards of water quality and sustainability of sources are urgent priorities. Water quality problems due to feacal and bacteriological contamination have not been rigorously addressed. This poses a real health threat to people who use private shallow hand pumps for drinking purposes. For example, an unsafe distance between drinking water sources and sources of contamination; leads to pollution and unhygienic conditions around the drinking water sources.
Years of concentrated efforts by the government machinery, (especially with the introduction of the TSC programme) partner organizations and NGOs have helped in improving the situation related to water supply, sanitation and hygiene promotion, but the progress has been slower than what is desired. What is also strongly advocated is the holistic idea that sanitation goes beyond mere construction of toilets and entails adoption of correct personal hygiene, home sanitation, safe water, garbage disposal, excreta disposal and waste water disposal.